Crises and Technical Innovations as ‘Spiritus Movens’ in Art
The main thesis which has been elaborated in this article is that the collective and individual crisis, along with technical innovations, are the main spiritus movens responsible for establishing new conditions in the art. Let us take an example, the impersonation of contemporary art results by the very experience of apocalyptic collapse of the world, a feeling of existential jeopardy of humankind, including the scientific progress at the beginning of 20th century. The onset of such feeling is closely connected to changes in society, culture, nature and the world. These changes have affected and undermined the apparent stable world and have pushed the human beings into a state of historical and civilization chaos. This state is changing completely the natural order, the living and cultural values, and it turns these values upside down almost to full relativization. The loss of ancient values and crises in the spirit of Thomas Kuhn’s interpretation are indispensable in order to establish the new spiritual values. The entire dialectic shift of modernistic and avant-garde tendencies in art, including the post-modernism, are preconditioned by collective and individual crises and also by development of new technologies. All these interlaced relations bring into motion the new forms of art.